Groundwork & Positioning

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Hello, my name is Brooke Murphy, and welcome to the Fundamentals 201: Groundwork and Positioning training. Today's presentation is part of a comprehensive housing training series that is part of the Department of Local Affairs' Division of Housing Affordable Housing Toolkit.
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The purpose of this training is to introduce local elected officials and government staff to the local housing needs assessment process, including understanding local housing needs and conditions; how to find, access, and conduct an analysis of national, regional, and local housing-related data; better understanding the role of local elected officials in facilitating community input as part of the groundwork and positioning process; as well as exploring the value and importance of stakeholder engagement in the grant of groundwork and positioning process, especially for identifying housing gaps and housing opportunities. A brief description of the Division of Housing Local Officials Housing Toolkit is: the Division of Housing partners with local communities across the state of Colorado to create housing opportunities for Coloradans who face the greatest challenges to accessing affordable, safe, and secure homes. DOH supports projects ranging from homelessness prevention to homeownership. The Local Officials Toolkit, a joint project between the Division of Housing, Enterprise Community Partners, and Community Builders, is intended to help local communities identify possible housing opportunities and streamline their processes for achieving affordable housing, and housing in general faster. The toolkit will explain affordable housing in the context of Colorado communities and it's separated into three core components. The toolkit includes an Affordable Housing 101 training series (this particular training) as well as the 201 training fundamentals modules that can be found online and include a set of potential tools and solutions such as policies, programs, and partnership models that communities can use and are already using across the state to address housing needs in Colorado.
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So, what are we referring to when we use the term 'groundwork and positioning'? Groundwork and positioning is the process of collecting and synthesizing information and engaging with community and local stakeholders to better understand local housing needs and conditions. The local housing needs assessment process is a part of this groundwork and positioning phase, which is undertaken with the aim of determining how to best address housing gaps and allocate resources, particularly public resources and public funding. It is the first critical step in developing an effective local housing strategy.
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It's important to note that the groundwork and positioning phase is fundamentally a social process rather than a purely quantitative academic or research-oriented project. The primary goal of a groundwork and positioning phase is to develop a better understanding of why and for whom housing affordability in your region or in your locality is a challenge.
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As noted on a previous slide, the groundwork and positioning process is really a data collection and information gathering process, and an information exchange between local government and community. And, so, in this process, both qualitative and quantitative data are equally important, especially for understanding local housing needs both through people's experiences as well as through the lens and analysis of data. So, qualitative data in particular I think often becomes secondary in this groundwork and positioning process and we really want to elevate and emphasize the importance that qualitative data brings to this process. Qualitative data and talking with and getting information about people's experiences in the community can really help local governments or local elected officials get from just purely identifying housing gaps as they exist to understanding the underlying causes for those housing gaps and begin to devise solutions or develop tactics or strategies to address them. So, a thorough groundwork and positioning process can help local elected officials and local government design a local housing strategy, determine housing goals and objectives, secure grants and project funding, both from private foundations as well as public grants. Public dollars can help local government evaluate the effectiveness of existing plans and policies, build consensus and community support for housing initiatives, strategize for the allocation of local resources as well as monitor and evaluate progress towards identified goals in the future.
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So, what is the role of local government in the groundwork and positioning process? Well, how you engage programmatically in the housing continuum as a local government depends on the specific needs of your community in your market. So, a surprising number of communities may often jump to and are anxious to implement housing solutions without a really close examination, or an accurate understanding of the nature and the extent of housing problems and challenges in their community. So, understanding communities' housing needs and assessing and understanding what existing plans, policies, and programs are in place. Also, developing an understanding of local capacity to address housing issues will help local governments develop a deeper understanding of your situation before diving into solution development. So, the role of a local government within this process--there are a couple different roles that a government can take on. One would be commissioning a housing needs assessment. Two would be reviewing existing regulatory and policy tools and planning efforts that are supported or are being executed by local government. Developing community and stakeholder survey design and input and public outreach; building consensus around identified housing goals and needs; and using all this information to develop and deploy a local housing strategy.
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On the previous slide, we talked about the role of local government within the groundwork and positioning phase. So now, take one step over and talk about the role of local elected officials in a groundwork and position process. So, local elected officials are really key actors during this phase, particularly within the realm of community and stakeholder engagement, as well as in advocating for your community's needs and getting a and building consensus with anchor institutions or other organizations to help support initiatives that may come out of a local housing strategy. So, some examples that we've provided here include, for local officials, to support and help organize or 10 community engagement efforts such as public forums and events, communicating and representing or advocating for your community's needs, as well as working with and talking to community to them to ensure that that everyone at the table who is coming together to talk about housing needs really has a thorough and accurate understanding of people's experiences in the community. Trust building is another key component, especially for those local elected officials who may represent communities who are mistrustful of or skeptical of government or the public process and any other skepticism or other conditions that may prevent those communities that you represent from engaging or participating in the groundwork and positioning phase, as well as coalition building. By coalition building, I'm referring to working with and identifying organizations, institutions, employers, or service providers in your community who can be important partners for supporting housing efforts and housing initiatives for impacted populations.
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So, something that a local government may often commission or undertake during a groundwork and positioning process is a local housing needs assessment. So, what is a housing needs assessment? A housing needs assessment is an analysis of existing housing supply and demand and a projection of future community housing needs. It's an important tool that can help communities to proactively manage and plan for residential growth by determining how much of a housing need is there for development, what forms that development should take, and what are the housing gaps or what are the housing needs in the community that are not being currently met. A housing needs assessment is different than a market study. And this is something... the two can often be confused. A market study is something that's often conducted by a private developer, for example, to better understand market section market saturation and prospective market absorption for a certain type of housing. So, that might be one-bedroom apartments. A housing needs assessment, conversely, is a more comprehensive assessment of community housing needs and conditions across the housing spectrum.
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When a local government is thinking about or planning for a local housing needs assessment, there are a couple of core guiding questions as local government sets out. That would include, for local housing needs assessment, identifying or defining the geographic bounds of the study. Housing markets often extend beyond the political boundaries of a jurisdiction. So, this geographic definition can be a crucial consideration. For some communities or some regions, a county-level or an MSA-level needs assessment can be the most effective way to look at community housing across a region. It can then be further broken down on a specific jurisdiction-by-jurisdiction level within the county to provide a more the most complete picture. Another crucial consideration during this planning for a local needs assessment process would include identifying what information you would like to know and also identifying who needs to be included in the process. So, that might include some of the populations that you anticipate or expect are most impacted by existing housing gaps; may also include employers or anchor institutions, those organizations who are affected or impacted when housing needs are not met in the community, as well as those organizations who may be currently working with impacted populations that you have identified as experiencing housing gaps, or service providers who are currently providing housing needs and housing services within your community, as well as the stakeholders who can help provide information about processes or procedures, building codes that may be presenting barriers to housing development, and that may include developers or builders and contractors or real estate professionals. Another core consideration and planning for a local needs assessment is assessing or understanding what your local government's capacity is to support or engage in this work. What are the existing housing plans, policies, or programs that are in place? What is currently being done and how are those programs working? As well as what are the resources available to support a local housing needs assessment either in-house or by hiring a third party. Some other pieces and components that are important to consider when devising a local housing needs assessment would be, who are the community partners--private or nonprofit partners--that can help bring information to light during this process help engage the community and gather community input, or who may or may be able to whether through staff labor or financial resources, resources help to support the needs assessment process. Also, consider what type of community engagement would be critical to this process, and what are resources to support or organize those efforts. Finally, at the conclusion of a local housing needs assessment take a step back, review the findings, and identify any unexpected outcomes or any new information that came to light that is deserving of additional attention or investigation.
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A local housing needs assessment does require resources and there are a couple of different options for local governments available to help fund this work. There are both public and private resources: there are grants through the Department of Local Affairs' Division of Housing as well as some grants that are available through the Colorado Housing Finance Authority (CHFA) and philanthropic work foundation grants (private dollars) that local governments can use to support this work. Some federal dollars might also be available and designated for allocation to support a local housing needs assessment.
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A local housing needs assessment can include a multitude of components and can be really flexible in terms of its breadth and focus, especially for being tailored according to local priorities or concerns in a community. A needs assessment may include but is not limited to, an analysis of demographic and economic conditions in the evaluation of existing housing stock. Housing gap analysis, or identification and analysis of what types of housing and housing needs aren't currently being served by the private market or by existing affordable housing, may include a homelessness or unhoused needs analysis and component; may include stakeholder interviews, a forecast for future housing demand, as well as a conclusion with recommendations and strategies for further action.
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On the previous slide, we talked about the components of a housing needs assessment. But really, on this slide, what are the questions that our housing needs assessment is trying to answer? Really, it's important to emphasize that a needs assessment isn't just a regional demographic profile to better understand the market, but also incorporates a number of factors that have a direct relation to housing (i.e., who are the populations who are cost-burdened, what are the demographics of homeownership, where do family households versus single adults live in a community, what are the demographics of homelessness, etc.) So, some of these guiding questions that a local housing needs assessment may set out to answer or consider would be: is existing housing stock and supply adequately meeting community needs and current demands? Is there alignment or is there misalignment between the existing available housing stock in terms of its location, the structure age, the structure types in terms of number of bedrooms, tenure, diversity, for sale, or for rent, as well as the price points for housing on the private market? And how is that matching or aligning with or not aligning with demand? And that would be the median purchasing power or income in the community, median household size, diversity of household types, etc. Other questions that may seek to answer would include: is the rate and types of housing production in the market adequate to meet the community's current but also forecasted needs in the future? Where and what is the state of existing dedicated affordable or workforce housing? And by dedicated affordable or workforce housing units, I'm referring to housing that is income or deed restricted already for households earning specific AMI or who are recipients of voucher programs or subsidies, or who meet occupational or other criteria. Another guiding question that a local housing needs assessment may set out to answer would be: what are the current services being provided for unhoused populations, and what is the depth of need for those populations, or for transitional housing communities or permanent supportive housing as well?
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So, we're going to take a moment to talk about a case study that can help illustrate the flexibility and different ways that a local housing needs assessment can be performed. The St. Louis Valley is a region in Colorado, in the central Colorado mountains, that is fairly remote. It's a large geographic area that has a lot of small communities that can be pretty far apart from one another. And a lot of these smaller communities in this region typically do not have the resources or funding that a large community may have. Therefore, many of these communities have not ever had a housing needs assessment performed. So, the St. Louis Valley Housing Coalition, which operates on a regional scale, helped to organize and commission a housing needs assessment for the valley. The project brought together regional municipalities in order to leverage combined funding and available resources to fund a study for the entire region. And essentially helped to bring housing needs assessment and focus to a lot of parts of this region that had either housing needs assessments that were very outdated, or had never had a needs assessment done. So the study assessed current housing stock and housing needs for each county and then included a deeper dive into 14 smaller communities or jurisdictions that had never had to study or had an outdated one. The goal of this particular housing study was to determine the greatest location for future housing to meet the needs of the community.
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There are a lot of national, regional, and also local level data sources that communities can use and access to begin building an understanding of housing needs and conditions in their community. So here, we've listed out some publicly available and accessible national data sources that communities can begin to pull from. This includes Census Bureau data such as the American Community Survey, or other census products. On the map is a really great, freely available (I believe that there's also a paid version) that communities can access through a web browser that maps a lot of this demographic data geographically. Other nationally available data resources include HUD or the US Postal Service, FBI crime reports if that's something that the community wants to include, as well as commercial data providers. Policy Map is another really great tool that takes a lot of nationally and publicly available data resources and geographically maps them across a community online as a starting point for understanding housing needs and conditions as well as demographics.
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National-level data resources are publicly available, easily accessible, and are updated on a fairly regular basis which makes them great data resources as a launching point. But they can and should always be supplemented through a groundwork and positioning process or in a local housing needs assessment with state-level data resources and local or regional data resources. For the state of Colorado, the Colorado Housing Finance Authority (CHFA) has a great resource called the Gap Map, which is available on their website and hyperlinked here in the slide. The State Demography Office, the Department of Labor and Employment, as well as the state EDA office (Economic Development), also are great data resources as well. Local and regional data resources that you may be able to pull from as a locality would include any MPOs (Metropolitan Planning Organizations) that operate in your area. If there is a regional or county housing authority, that can also provide great data at a local level or at a county level, the community development and planning office or the building department typically have really great data for this kind of work, as well as the Economic Development Districts or EDD's assessor's office. Assessors' offices also have really great data for this work, as well as the clerk and recorder who may be able to provide foreclosure filings or information on property transactions. Other important organizations that may not immediately come to mind, we'll include the Health and Human Services Department or the Public Health Department, school districts, transit authorities, or any nonprofits working in housing or behavioral health who may be able and willing to provide and share some of their data to help support a housing needs assessment process.
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Local data and regional data may require more legwork in order to access and gather usable information as part of a groundwork and position process. But it is really crucially important and is absolutely valuable and worth what may be extra effort to try and harness that data to help supplement state and national level data. Local and regional data in particular can really help jurisdictions develop a richer understanding of local housing challenges because they're often more current and more sensitive to capturing small market shifts. Community engagement and stakeholder interviews qualitative data piece is also a really important part of the local and regional data gathering. Engagement and input from the community can help local officials or give local officials the ability to capture both perspectives and experiences of local residents through surveys, one-on-one interviews, focus groups, stakeholder engagement sessions, public forums, etc. Something that local entities, or on a regional level, communities can establish is formal data-sharing partnerships as part of this groundwork and positioning process. These might be data-sharing partnerships or agreements across governments, jurisdictions, between agencies within a jurisdiction, or with nonprofits or private organizations as well, which can really improve data utility for everyone. The National Neighborhood Indicators Partnership offers a really helpful resource on establishing formal data-sharing agreements if that's of interest as a region or local government.
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At the outset of this presentation, we really emphasize that a groundwork and positioning process is really a social process. That's important to emphasize again here that this stakeholder engagement component of groundwork and positioning or a local needs assessment is not to simply verify data or to fill in data gaps. This process can really add a totally new dimension to the assessment. Soliciting community input not only helps, it's not just a one way to exchange information between a local government or a third party consultant in the community but is a reciprocal exchange of information and also, by bringing together different stakeholders into the same space and facilitating conversations, it can help different organizations to learn from one another and build those relationships. It's also an opportunity for building a shared vision and awareness as a community of the issues housing experiences and housing challenges and identifying potential partners for implementation or champions in the community to help support the work that may come out of this process.
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So, at this point, we've covered the housing needs assessment, available data resources on a national as well as a local level, and the value of stakeholder and community engagement--all those components of this groundwork and positioning process. Another component of groundwork and positioning may include an assessment of the current policy and planning landscape in your community or your region. And this component may consist of taking a high-level, or really close examination depending on available capacity and resources. Taking a look at the existing plans, policies, and programs to understand what is currently being done in the community in terms of housing, and then be how successful those programs or policies are. This type of assessment can be particularly valuable in informing discussions with local developers or builders, about the factors that are influencing local development costs, or procedures that may be roadblocks or barriers to building certain types of housing. This type of evaluation can be really general, at a very high level: are our plans and policies doing what they aim to do or are they creating barriers to the type of housing development that we want to see? Or they can be really detailed, and that may be an analysis of various specific ways that local plans, policies, or procedures are impacting housing development. That may include a zoning code and land use audit, for example, or an audit and review of the development review process.
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On the previous slide, we talked about an assessment of the current policy landscape, and how it's impacting housing, and housing development within a region or jurisdiction. Another part of the groundwork and positioning processes is to also understand historically how policies and programs have affected the geography of housing and the demographic geography within our communities. So, housing needs and conditions and investment can be geographically mapped across our cities and jurisdictions. A key component of understanding local housing conditions is to develop an awareness of the policies that drive historical and modern-day development patterns. And then, to draw connections between housing policies and racial disparities that exist in many of our cities, racial and socioeconomic disparities that exist in many of our communities today. So, where have different housing types and where have different public and private investments gone geographically in our community? How does it relate to the socioeconomic characteristics of those locations? This process and going through this process may help communities to identify priority areas geographically, as well as policies when developing a local housing strategy. American cities are often referred to as melting pots where people of different backgrounds, ethnicities, and races live together and enhance one another's lives. A more accurate description may be of a TV dinner where all of the food is in the box, but it doesn't necessarily mix together. So here on this slide, this is an image capture from Justice Map, which is a publicly available tool that allows us to see the demography or the geography of our demographics and housing, and where people live by race in our cities and towns. So here, this is an image capture of Denver and you'll see that predominantly white non-Hispanic households are in pink. And then those communities that are predominantly Hispanic households are in blue. And you can see, really that the city of Denver is still very much organized residentially according to race, and our development patterns have really influenced where different types of people live.
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So, when talking about demography, the way that our demographics and socioeconomic environments and communities are organized on a geographic level, it's really important to talk about redlining, how it relates to underwriting, and how that influences the development patterns of our communities. In 1934, the Federal Housing Administration was charged with making homeownership more accessible for Americans. The FHA revolutionized home buying by ensuring private loans from private lenders, allowing banks to offer mortgages that could be repaid over 30 years with just 10% down and being underwritten by the federal government. The FHA really established homeownership as a tool for wealth generation and stability and used it to bolster national pride during this time, but not for everyone. FHA would only insure mortgage loans for white non-Hispanic persons in areas where white people already lived and owned businesses, as documented on maps like the one that you see here on this slide. Denver, like all other cities, was built around its redlining map, and millions of taxpayer dollars poured into segregated white non-Hispanic neighborhoods, while neighborhoods where non-white people lived struggled with very little public or private investment in increasing poverty as the racial wealth divide took hold using race as a proxy for credit risk and future property value, and valuation guarantee that white communities would prosper and communities of color would be subjected to predatory lending practices.
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In addition to redlining and redlining maps, there are a number of other federal policies at a national level that have influenced and informed the geographies of equity development and investment in our physical communities. We'll briefly go over some of those which we've called out here. From 1862 to 1934, the Homestead Act awarded 270 million acres of land in the form of 1.6 million homesteads to the ancestors of more than 20% of today's white non-Hispanic families but specifically and explicitly excluded Black households and Black families. From the 1930s to the 1960s, there were a number of federal housing initiatives, programs such as the GI Bill, which helped establish the post-World War II white middle class but discriminated heavily against returning Black servicemen. Of the $120 billion worth of new housing subsidized by the government during this period, less than 2% went to non-white families. 1933 to 1968 redlining, which we discussed a bit previously on the previous slide, redlining maps were introduced and determined areas that were primed for investment in areas where no money would be lent. Neighborhoods where no money would go were outlined in red. The determination was based almost entirely on race. The red shading ensured that no investments would reach these neighborhoods and made people of color synonymous with the decline of property values. So, redlining was really how structural racism was designed into the built environment. It shifted segregation from superstructure to infrastructure, effectively isolating communities, even when the 'colored only' signs came down. Without access to lending, insurance, or even health care in a lot of these communities, minorities were forced on a path of disinvestment and decay. By many means, the city became a machine for reproducing a racially divided society. This type of system of design alters what is possible and where public and private investment and wealth-building opportunities went physically in our communities and in the decades to follow. In 2008, the Great Recession, Hispanic and African American borrowers were 30% more likely to receive a higher rate subprime mortgage loan. Banks made subprime mortgages in 2006 to 53% of Black homeowners, and 47% of Hispanic homeowners are Latinx homeowners, but only 26% of white homeowners. Altogether, 8% of then-recent, Black and Latinx homeowners lost their homes to foreclosures in the recession compared to 4.5% of white non-Hispanic households. In total, 44% of all foreclosures during the Great Recession happened to Black and brown households. And throughout this time, NIMBYism, or 'not in my backyard'-ism, has been affecting development patterns within our built communities. Wealthy, predominantly white non-Hispanic residents in high opportunity neighborhoods and areas have used their political heft to prevent low-income, housing development, multifamily housing, or other types of development and land use that are deemed unsavory from being built in their neighborhoods again, affecting where certain investment and where certain housing types go in our communities.
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In the previous slides, we discussed the historical policies and how historical policies have shaped the development patterns and the geography of equity in our communities. These are important understandings and considerations when designing community engagement processes today as part of a groundwork and positioning process, which will be used to shape essentially be used to shape future housing policy and housing initiatives. It's also important to remember that stakeholders impacted by housing are not just the people who experience housing conditions, but also the organizations and the businesses and the service providers who are impacted when housing needs are not met. This is particularly relevant for local elected officials who need to be thinking about coalition building during the groundwork and positioning phase. So when designing stakeholder engagement as part of a process of investigation into housing conditions and housing needs, consider which groups or service providers have built trust with the community and are already serving impacted community members and can help to engage in solicit participation in a public input process from impacted or affected populations. Another important consideration is to think about past planning or community engagement efforts. And think about if there are any planning or engagement processes that took place that really never came to fruition. Were there any promises made to any populations or parts of the community that weren't followed through one is these will affect both participation and attendance, as well as public trust and consensus building in the groundwork and positioning process.
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A question that arises with a lot of the communities that we work with is how we successfully engage with our most impacted populations and facilitate their feedback and their participation in a groundwork and positioning process. And so, on the slide, we've pulled together a number of strategies that communities may use to help facilitate the most valuable engagement with impacted or affected populations. The first would be to identify and partner with those organizations that have already built trust with an impacted population. By working with them. These organizations can provide really important partnership opportunities, as well as locations where those impacted populations will physically go as part of an engagement process that can help improve turnout and attendance at engagement events. As well as having those organizations or other staff or contractors who have relevant lived experience, language skills, or cultural awareness to lead engagement with those impacted or affected populations. Anticipating and addressing barriers to participation is another key consideration in designing engagement efforts, such as work schedules, translation needs or services, childcare services for those who may benefit from having childcare provided at an event, transportation or access issues as well as accessibility needs. Be aware of power dynamics, inclusivity, and facilitation. Not everyone feels comfortable standing up in a room full of people and voicing their concerns or talking about their experiences. So be aware of that when designing different types of engagement and events. The government may even consider providing some sort of financial compensation to participants to acknowledge the time and the value of their participation and their experience. Use activities or design activities that avoid making assumptions about people's perspectives or preferences, and really expect that you're going to encounter frustration, skepticism, and trauma, when you work with or when you engage with impacted and affected populations.
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When designing the community engagement aspects of either a local needs assessment or as part of your groundwork and positioning process, to help with the design of engagement efforts and events, there are a few central considerations or questions that a local government may want to ask themself. Before heading out into the community consider what information you want to know from the community. Who do you need to hear from who are those most impacted populations? Who was being served at various points of the housing continuum? Consider how you want to collect information either through surveys, through write-in comments through public forums, etc. Who are the trusted community partners that you can work with that can help with outreach and assessment that may include schools, community lead organizations, anchor institutions, or service providers? And then what means or methods are you using to ensure intentional outreach and engagement with those populations who may be the end users of future housing development and future housing initiatives?
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Finally, as part of any groundwork and positioning process, it's important for a local government to take a step back and assess its capacity and the local resources available to dedicate to gathering information, engaging with the community to formalize public-private partnerships, etc. More for commissioning a local housing needs assessment. So, when I say local capacity, what that means, or what I'm referring to is, the staff time, the financial and labor resources available, as well as the skills that you have available to dedicate to a particular effort as part of this groundwork and positioning process. Some central questions that local governments may use or that local elected officials may use to begin to assess available capacity would include: how well do we understand our needs as they exist today? What are the nature of our housing challenges? Who needs this information? And who do we need to ensure understands the problem? This may be for facilitating private dollars or public investment in a future housing development or housing initiative. What resources do we have available internally to assess the problem, both financial and in terms of people power? Are we internally the best suited to undertake this kind of work or should we seek an outside consultant or third party to help facilitate any stage of a groundwork and positioning process? If we lack the resources to pay for a needs assessment, do we have the capability or the capacity internally to just construct a very basic assessment of our own to begin answering a couple of fundamental questions and therefore lead to developing a local housing strategy?
Now I will cover a quick case study on a local housing needs assessment that was conducted for the San Louis Valley Housing Coalition. This case study is a great example of a housing needs assessment that includes a strategy or an action plan that identifies high-priority actions that the community can take to meet their housing needs, as well as a basic roadmap for how to achieve those needs or fulfill those needs. So this local housing needs assessment was broken down by different cities and communities within the San Luis Valley. On the next slide, the next few slides will focus on one of those cities, which is Antonito. But the overall housing needs assessment for the St. Louis Valley really rose up and showed five priorities across the valley for an overall housing strategy. And those were expanding education and community outreach, improving existing inventory, new rental housing, new homes for sale, and improving land use the their regulatory environments and community infrastructure. On this slide, we explore and see how the strategies on the previous slide interact in terms of defining and describing the housing needs in Antonito, specifically, and begin to build out an action plan forward to satisfy or work towards fulfilling those needs. So here, you'll see on the community side and on the public side, the strategy of education and outreach, which is important for facilitating awareness in the community as to what our housing needs are then on the jurisdictional side, or the government side, we have improving and auditing Land, land use regulations, and ensuring adequate infrastructure, equitable building code enforcement, and make sure that those aspects make up the foundation of our housing production. Then in the middle, where the community side and the government side meet, we can start to define the need of how many units we need and the types of housing that the community needs. In Antonito's case, improving the existing inventory and building new rental and for-sale housing of about five to 10 units in the next five years, by 2027 with a total goal of 15 to 20 units here we see how the local housing needs assessment started to build and define the roadmap forward for the community to begin to advance their housing goals and meet their housing needs identified in the housing needs assessment, as we discussed on the previous slide, what those needs were. So here we see how the local housing needs assessment laid out the strategies to move forward. And so, here you'll see the example that is pulled out for Antonito. As for new rental housing, the plan identified a lead agency or identified that there needs to be a lead agency as well as potential collaborators and funding sources for the work as well as other resources. It lays out a timeframe as well as the number of units that we aim to achieve within the timeframe. Strategies to be used as well as constraints and opportunities.
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I hope today's presentation on Fundamentals 201: Groundwork and Positioning was valuable. For those who are interested in further learning further learning and additional resources. You can visit DOLA's Division of Housing website. The website for the Affordable Housing Toolkit for Local Officials, of which this training series is a component and to stay up to date with training materials and next steps for technical assistance being offered and organized through the Affordable Housing Toolkit program. You may contact Andrew Atchley or Natalie Walk, or sign up for DOH's email blast that is linked in the slide. Thank you very much.